[SPREC Insight VOL.2] Expansion of the concept of space security and increasing importance of national defense and space, our response posture
  • By. 김지선
  • Date. 2023-07-13
  • View. 235

■ There is no definition of space security yet, but it is understood as a concept that includes ‘safety’ and ‘defence’

● The internationally agreed definition is difficult because the center of space security is changing by era and by country, and the boundaries between 'safety', 'defense', and 'security' are unclear.

- In the case of the US and Russia, the concept leans towards ‘defense’ (C), Africa and the UAE have a concept close to ‘safety’ (A), and in the case of Japan, ‘security’ → ‘defense’ is changing.

■ Space security can be divided into three perspectives: ‘outer space for security’, ‘security in outer space’, and ‘security from outer space’.

                                                  [Table] Space security specific areas related to public (private) and national defense

space security field

public (private) domain

Public (private) + defense common area

defense area

space for security

(Outer space for security)

• Orbit and frequency preoccupation

• Space traffic control (STM)

• Satellite Utilization

• Using projectiles

• Space Situational Awareness (SSA)

• Cyber Security

• space directed weapons

security in space

(Security in outer space)

• Unintentional satellite collision

• Space traffic control (STM)

• space weather

• space junk

• Space Situational Awareness (SSA)

• Radio jamming

• Cyber Security

• Intentional satellite collision

• Interspace Weapons

security from space

(Security from outer space)

• Asteroid impact

• Space object crash

• Space traffic control (STM)

• space weather

• Space Situational Awareness (SSA)

• Earth-directed weapons

■ Recently, major advanced countries have been strengthening their tendency to think of ‘space security’ as ‘defense space’ rather than ‘space defense,’ and are preparing various defense and space strategies accordingly.

● The United States recognized early on the strategic importance of space beyond its surveillance of Soviet nuclear weapons and, therefore, declared space an essential concern in the late 1990s.

- Adopted the principle of “space supremacy” as foreign participation in space increased and reliance on it increased.

● China is strengthening its interest in defense and space, restructuring its organization and pursuing a direction for more enhanced utilization.

● India has promoted space development centered on private space programs for decades, but promoted the use of space for military purposes in the 2000s.

● Japan has long promoted space development centered on the use of space as a peaceful domain, but recently emphasized the importance of space for security and expanded the use of space in terms of defense.

● Russia continues to pursue the use of space for national defense, and recognizes the expansion of use of space for defense, such as the ‘militarization of outer space’, as a ‘main external threat’.

● France recognizes the importance of space in terms of security and seeks to strengthen related capabilities, but expresses a negative stance on competition for national finance.

■ Korea's response direction

● Until now, Korea has been lacking in policies in the fields of space economy, space diplomacy, and space security, due to the promotion of space policies centered on space development (development of technology and securing space assets).

● Furthermore, at a time when the importance of space is growing even more in a rapidly changing world situation, there are limits to actively responding to global trends and changes in space security.

● In the future, space needs to be recognized as a very important national agenda in terms of international politics and national security, away from the perception that it is a subject of technological development and part of social infrastructure.

- To this end, it seems necessary to secure technologies, systems, and political means that can preemptively respond to the space security field that is newly attracting attention.